Stephen Hans Blog by cjleclaire
Employment and Labor Law Attorneys
Jan 16, 2013 | 441568 views | 0 0 comments | 877 877 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

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What Employers Should Know About Retaliation Claims
by cjleclaire
Jul 11, 2018 | 20284 views | 0 0 comments | 482 482 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

Retaliation Claims May Include Emotional Distress Damages

A precedent has been set in relation to retaliation claims brought against employers.

Two courts of appeals, the Sixth and Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals had both ruled that employees have the right to recover for emotional distress damages in retaliation claims brought under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FSLA).

The National Law Review reported that a third court, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals also delivered the same ruling regarding damages for emotional distress.

What Are the Case Details in This Third Ruling?

A maintenance man, Santiago Pineda, while working for an apartment complex owned by JTCH Apartments, LLC received discounted rent as part of his compensation for doing apartment maintenance. After Pineda sought unpaid overtime, he and his wife received notice to vacate the apartments with the reason being given that they had failed to pay rent. JTCH at that point was claiming Pineda owed rent for the course of his employment. Pineda sued for damages based on the eviction and demand for back rent. He also entered an appeal regarding the district court’s failure to instruct the jury about his ability to claim damages for emotional distress related to his retaliation claim.

The Fifth Court of Appeals ruled that the court was in error when declining to instruct the jury regarding Pineda’s right to damages for emotional distress, and it reversed and remanded the case for trial so the jury could decide on this potential damage.

How Could the Ruling About Retaliation Claims Impact Employers?

Employers should be aware that employees who also file for emotional distress damages could potentially recover much greater compensation than they would otherwise recover for a retaliation claim. A finding in favor of retaliation typically would compensate for back pay or other economical damages. When other types of compensatory damages are considered, as in this case emotional distress, the awards to employees could be substantial.

Our attorneys at Stephen Hans & Associates are glad to offer legal advice and provide legal representation in disputed employment issues.

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Misclassifying Workers as Independent Contractors
by cjleclaire
Jun 12, 2018 | 21614 views | 0 0 comments | 679 679 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

How Would Your Small Business Fare with the IRS for Worker Status?

Did you know that misclassifying workers is one of the top problems that small business owners face? Many small businesses hire independent contractors as part of running their businesses and delivering services or products. It is vital for employers to ensure that they classify workers correctly.

What Can Happen as Result of Misclassifying Workers as Independent Contractors?

The IRS website explains that misclassified workers can file a Social Security Tax Form 8919. Form 8919 is a request for uncollected Social Security and Medicare taxes due on their compensation. In other words, the employer could owe a considerable amount of compensation to the worker because the worker paid the Social Security and Medicare taxes instead of the employer, due to the fact the worker was misclassified as an independent contractor.

What Recourse Do You Have If You Believe the Worker Has Not Been Misclassified?

The IRS recognizes the fact that you may have had a reasonable basis for classifying a worker as an independent contractor and not as an employee. Therefore, relief provisions are granted in such cases. However, you must file all the necessary federal information returns to establish your basis for relief. (See section 530 Employment Tax Relief Requirements).

What is the Voluntary Classification Settlement Program?

The Voluntary Classification Settlement Program (VCSP) offers employers the option of reclassifying workers as employees for future tax periods. It also provides partial relief from federal employment taxes when the employers agree to classify their workers or a class or group of workers as employees. Employers must meet certain eligibility requirements to be allowed to participate in this voluntary program.

Our attorneys at Stephen Hans & Associates are glad to answer your questions and provide legal guidance to help you comply with employment laws or provide you with representation in disputed employment issues.

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Do Your Work Policies Discriminate Between Men and Women?
by cjleclaire
May 16, 2018 | 27468 views | 0 0 comments | 1045 1045 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

One Set of Rules for Men and a Different Set of Rules for Women

Having company policies that discriminate between men and women can be lethal for an employer in today’s work environment. If you haven’t had an attorney review your employee handbook or policies in recent times, it would be wise to do so.

Recent Lawsuit Filed by the EEOC Against the New Orleans Saints

The New York Times published an article about how an Instagram post led to the EEOC’s discrimination lawsuit brought on behalf of a cheerleader against the New Orleans Saints. Saints officials fired Bailey Davis based on an Instagram post where she wore a one-piece outfit. They also conducted an inquiry about her attending a party where a Saints player was present. Davis denies being at the party. However, the scope of this case goes beyond wrongful termination and challenges the team’s policies by alleging a double standard for female and male employees.

Are different rules for men and women discriminatory?

Saints officials put an anti-fraternization policy in place to protect against domestic violence and sexual harassment among players and league employees. The following are the rules that the plaintiff alleges are discriminatory:

Cheerleaders must block players from following them on social media and cannot post photos where they are wearing Saints gear. No such rules exist for the team’s players. Many players use pseudonyms on social media and yet it is the cheerleader’s responsibility to discover this and block them.

Cheerleaders are penalized for pursuing engagement with players while players are not penalized for pursuing engagement with cheerleaders.

Cheerleaders are told not to dine in the same restaurant as players and not to speak to them in any detail. A cheerleader who enters a restaurant and sees a player is dining there must leave. If she is already dining in a restaurant and a player arrives afterward to dine, then she must leave. The same rule does not apply to players.

While the handbook rules aim to protect female employees against sexual harassment, the plaintiff alleges that the burden of avoidance is entirely placed on the females and that it has a harsher impact on them than the male employees.

An arbitration hearing will precede the lawsuit to see if a settlement can be reached.

If the case goes to trial, the court will have to decide where the fine line should be drawn between anti-harassment policies and discrimination.

Our attorneys at Stephen Hans & Associates are glad to answer your questions and provide legal guidance or representation in disputed employment issues.




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Social Media: Should You Use Social Media in an Internal Investigation?
by cjleclaire
May 16, 2018 | 24103 views | 0 0 comments | 1131 1131 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

Investigating Employees Through Their Social Media Accounts

Social media can provide a lot of information about people’s lives. Why would an employer want to know what an employee is doing through social media?

An employer may suspect that an employee is doing other things during work that do not relate to his or her job, such as posting on Facebook, watching Youtube videos, etc. An employer may also wonder if the employee is speaking badly about the company or discussing private company information.

Any number of reasons could motivate an employer to pressure an employee for social media account information or to access the employee’s site without permission.

What laws protect the privacy rights of employees?

The American Bar Association warns employers about not violating the Stored Communication Act (SCA). The SCA includes social networking sites when it states that individuals are subject to criminal and civil actions when the individual:

“Intentionally accesses without authorization a facility through which an electronic communication service is provided”

“Intentionally exceeds an authorization to access that facility”

(By intentionally accessing) “obtains, alters, or prevents authorized access to a wire or electronic communication while it is in electronic storage in such system”

Keep in mind that a government institution may obtain a subpoena for an investigation and through court approval access social networks for information. However, a private company conducting an internal investigation does not have this right.

Employers who obtain access to social media under false pretenses or through duress can be held liable and courts typically do not view favorably attempts to access an employee’s account information or the private account of a “friend.”

However, in some instances where employers obtain the information without asking or pressuring an employee to provide it, the courts have allowed it.

Get Legal Help with Your Questions about Employment Law

It is often wise to seek legal advice when you have questions about accessing an employee’s social media information. Stephen Hans & Associates offers seasoned legal guidance and representation to assist business owners with employment issues.

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The Stop Sexual Harassment in NYC Act
by cjleclaire
Apr 24, 2018 | 23670 views | 0 0 comments | 1207 1207 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

A New Law to Further the Prevention of Sexual Harassment in NYC Workplaces

The New York City Council recently passed legislation called the Stop Sexual Harassment in NYC Act. If Mayor Bill de Blasio signs the bill, it will go into effect on April 1, 2019.

What changes were introduced?

  • Several major changes included:
  • Mandatory anti-sexual harassment training
  • Employer requirements to display anti-sexual harassment posters of rights and responsibilities and to provide information sheets to employees
  • City Commission requirements to post resources on their website about sexual harassment

Who must receive the mandatory anti-harassment training?

All employers with 15 or more employees (including interns) must conduct yearly anti-sexual harassment training for all their employees. Supervisors and managers must also receive the annual training. The training must cover sexual harassment definitions and examples, bystander intervention education, and education about how to file complaints within the company and at the city, state and federal levels.

New NYC employees who work 80 or more hours per year on a full or part-time basis must receive the training within 90 days of initially being hired. If the employee received the training while working for another employer within the yearly training period, the employee can wait until the next year for annual training. Employers must receive a signed acknowledgement from the employee that he or she received the training.

What notifications must employers provide?

Employers must display a poster of anti-sexual harassment rights and responsibilities in a conspicuous spot and provide new employees with a sexual harassment information sheet that the City Commission has designed. This requirement takes effect 120 days after the mayor signs the act into law.

The City Commission must post resources about sexual harassment on its website and provide specific examples of sexual harassment, retaliation, information on bystander prevention and explanations regarding how to file complaints with the city, state and federal agencies.

(Further information is available at the National Law Review.)

Get Legal Help with New York City Anti-Harassment Law

If you are facing a sexual harassment claim, Stephen Hans & Associates can assist you in protecting your rights. Our firm offers seasoned legal guidance when advising and representing employers in disputed employment issues.

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Employee Salary Histories
by cjleclaire
Apr 19, 2018 | 21374 views | 0 0 comments | 533 533 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

Can Employers Ask Employees About their Salary History?

On May 4, 2017, the New York City Council passed a bill that limited what an employer can ask job candidates about their salary history, compensation history and other past benefits when interviewing them for a job. The law went into effect on October 31, 2017.

The National Law Review explains that new law was part of the New York City Human Rights Law. What this means for employers is that violations are subject to compensatory damages, which could include back pay, front pay, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, emotional distress, etc.

What was the purpose of passing the law?

The law had the purpose of preventing employers from using a job applicant’s past salary history to determine compensation. The employer cannot ask the job applicant about previous salary history for a current or prior wages, about benefits or other job compensation they have received. It is also unlawful for an employer to ask the previous employer what the individual was being paid or to ask about salary history. The employer also is prohibited from searching public records to obtain a job candidate’s salary history.

When the job candidates volunteer their salary history without any prompting, the employer can legally verify the information with the previous employer and use the salary history in determining the current salary.

What can an employer ask?

Employers can ask about the job candidate’s previous production at the job, such as how much revenue or sales they brought in or about other production statistics related to their work.

Employers can inform job candidates in writing or verbally about the proposed or anticipated salary or salary range for the open position. 

They can also discuss what the job applicant’s expectations are regarding salary, benefits and compensation.

Get Legal Help to Answer Your Questions about Employment Law

Stephen Hans & Associates offers seasoned legal guidance and representation to assist business owners with employment issues.


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What Employers Should Know About the New York Women’s Equality Act
by cjleclaire
Apr 13, 2018 | 23976 views | 0 0 comments | 482 482 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

Clarifications for Employers for Women in the Workplace

In June of 2014, the Governor Andrew Cuomo of New York signed amendments to the New York State Human Rights Law, which bolstered civil rights for women.

It’s important for employers understand the changes under the Women’s Equality Act so they can abide by the law and avoid discrimination disputes in the workplace.

Womans Equal Rights, NY Equality Act

How does the act affect pay equity?

Women must receive the same pay as men when performing the same work. However, the previous law enabled employers to suspend or terminate employees for discussing their wages with each other. This law prevents employers from firing or suspending employees who discuss wages with each other and also increases the amount in damages an employee can seek if an employer violates the new law.

How did the definition of “employer” change in respect to sexual harassment?

Previously, business owners with four or fewer employees were not considered “employers” under the Human Rights law, and therefore the sexual harassment law did not apply to them. The new law eliminates this distinction, and employees subjected to sexual harassment while working for any size company may file sexual harassment complaints.

Is it lawful to not hire or promote a woman because of her status of being a parent and her familial duties?

The new law prohibits employers, employment agencies, and labor organizations from discriminating against women based on their familial status. They cannot assume that because a women has children or plans to have a family that this fact disqualifies her for hiring or job promotion.

What changes were included in the act that affects pregnancy discrimination?

Employers are obligated to provide reasonable accommodations for pregnant women, due to the fact that certain pregnancies involve medical conditions. The previous law was confusing and often was wrongly interpreted. The new act clarified employers’ responsibilities to perform a reasonable analysis for pregnant employees.

Do You Have Questions about Women’s Rights in the Workplace?

Our attorneys are glad to answer your questions and address your concerns.

Stephen Hans & Associates provides decades of experience to business owners regarding employment related issues.

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How Does the New York Compassionate Care Act Affect Employers?
by cjleclaire
Apr 05, 2018 | 25073 views | 0 0 comments | 524 524 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink

The New York Compassionate Care Act (NYCCA) protects patients who are certified to use medical marijuana from being subject to criminal or civil marijuana charges. We live in an age where some states view marijuana as a legitimate medicine for individuals with certain types of diseases while they are being treated under a doctor’s care. Individuals with such diseases are also viewed as disabled, and employers are prohibited from discriminating against them because of their disability based on the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act).

What Employers Should Know About the New York Compassionate Care Act (NYCCA)

The New York legislature passed the NYCCA in July of 2014 and it went into effect in January 2016. The act will sunset in seven years.

Under the law, there can be no more than five manufacturers that provide medical marijuana in New York with a maximum of 20 locations.

Patients must have their physician provide them with written certification for using medical marijuana and their documentation must state the limitations of its use. They also must register with the health department. Patients may not consume medical marijuana in a public place. Other restrictions imposed by the law are that patients cannot smoke medical cannabis but have to take it in a different form.

Diseases that qualify a patient for certification include cancer, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord damage causing spasticity, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, neuropathies, or Huntington’s disease. Other diseases may also result in prescribing medical marijuana.

New York State Human Rights Law

The Society for Resource Management (SHRM) points out that the New York State Human Rights Law (NYSHRL) views a certified medical marijuana patient as disabled, which also protects them from employment discrimination.

Employers can still do drug testing if that is part of their work policy and can prohibit employees who are impaired by drug use from working on the job if it poses a danger or interferes with their work. They can prohibit workers from taking medical marijuana while in the workplace. However, they cannot discriminate against employees because they are certified to use medical marijuana. 

Do You Have Questions about the NYCCA and Your Rights as an Employer?

Because disabled employees who are certified for marijuana use can bring discrimination lawsuits against employers, it is vital for employers to know their legal boundaries.

Our attorneys at Stephen Hans & Associates are glad to answer your questions and provide legal guidance or representation in disputed employment issues.

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by cjleclaire
Mar 30, 2018 | 29148 views | 0 0 comments | 504 504 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink
by Stephen D. Hans

As an employer, have you ever wondered if a wage deduction you made was legal? New York Labor Law establishes what is legal and what is not for wage deductions. If you have questions, it is always wise to seek legal counsel from an experienced employment law defense attorney.

The NY legislature passed an amendment to NY Labor Law 193 Deductions from Wages in October 2015. The amendment went into effect on November 6, 2015 and expires on November 6, 2018, unless the legislature renews it. Two main features of the amendment are allowing employers to deduct for over payments and salary advances.


The amendment permits employers to make wage deductions for accidental overpayments. Overpayments refer to payments made due to a mathematical or clerical error by the employer. Note that the employer must provide the employee with a notice of the overpayment deduction prior to commencing the recovery.

Also, regulations govern how the deduction is made based on the size of overpayment along with the timing, frequency, duration and method of recovery. In addition, the employer must provide a procedure for the employee to dispute overpayment amounts and the procedure for recovering it.

Salary Advances

The employer must abide by rules the Commissioner has established for the timing, frequency, duration and method of deduction of a salary advance. There are also limitations on the periodic amount of repayment of the advance. Employers must provide employees with a notice before commencing repayment and also provide a procedure for the employee to dispute the amount or to seek delay of repayment.

In addition to wage advances and overpayments, some of the other allowed deductions include:

  • Insurance premiums
  • Prepaid legal plans
  • Pension or health and welfare benefits
  • Dues or assessments to a labor organization
  • Discounted parking or discounted passes, tokens, fare cards, vouchers or other items that entitle the employee to use mass transit

Do You Have Questions about Wage Deductions?

Our attorneys are glad to answer your questions and address your concerns.

Stephen Hans & Associates provides decades of experience to business owners regarding employment related issues.

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by cjleclaire
Mar 30, 2018 | 27295 views | 0 0 comments | 986 986 recommendations | email to a friend | print | permalink
by Stephen D. Hans

Owners in the restaurant industry often have questions about tips. As a restaurant owner, it’s important to know your rights and responsibilities regarding tips so you can avoid disputes with employees and not put your business at risk.

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FSLA), which is federal law, and the New York Labor Law (state law) determine how restaurant owners must deal with tips.

In the past, people paid restaurant bills with cash, but today credit cards are a popular and common form of payment.

How must a restaurant owner deal with credit card tips?

When tips are received by credit card, the owner must pay the employee the tip amount due no later than the regularly scheduled payday. Credit card companies charge a fee to the merchant for use of credit cards, and the fee is a percentage of the total amount paid on the card. The employer deducts the pro-rated share of the credit card company charge from the tip when calculating the employee’s tip.

How must an employee’s wage statement reflect wages and tips?

The wage statement must indicate the amount being paid to the employee in wages and the amount paid in tips.

How should employers handle cash tips?

Employers can allow employees to leave their cash tips with the employer during a particular pay period. However, doing so must be voluntary and up to the employee. Employers can hold tips as a service to the employee, and employers would indicate the amount in tips and wages in the wage statement. Employers cannot make their service of keeping cash tips as a mandatory hiring condition or as a condition for continued employment. If employees allow employers to keep their tips, employers must keep a daily record of tips earned by each employee and have the records available for inspection by the employee and/or the NY Department of Labor.

Do You Have Other Questions about NY Labor Laws that Apply to the Restaurant Industry?

Our attorneys at Stephen Hans & Associates are glad to answer your questions and provide legal guidance or representation for disputed employment issues.


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